What is obesity?
Obesity is an abnormal buildup of body fat. A person is said to be overweight or obese when he or she has more body fat than the right body weight; 20-40% more than the ideal body weight is considered as Mild overweight; 40-100% over normal body weight is considered as moderate overweight; and 100% over normal body weight is considered as Severe overweight or obese. The World Health Organization (WHO) has called obesity a global epidemic and obesity-related diseases are on the rise.
Many medical professionals use a measure called BMI (Body Mass Index – weight index) to diagnose obesity; a person’s weight in kilograms is multiplied by 703 and then divided by double the height in inches. Overweight is defined as a BMI of 25.9-29, while obese is defined as a BMI of 30 or greater. In most cases, measurements and comparisons of waist and hip circumferences are also useful; a high waist-hip ratio can lead to weight-related risk factors.
Obesity in children and adolescents
Obesity is a condition that affects people of all ages. More and more children are suffering today from what used to be a terminal illness. Over the last 20 years, the number of obese children has tripled. At least 10% of six-year-olds and 17% of 15-year-olds today are found to be overweight. Childhood obesity is a strong indication that the child will grow up to be an adult as obese. In addition, childhood obesity is a strong indicator of weight-related health problems in later life, indicating that unhealthy educated choices continue into adulthood.
Obesity raises the risk of disease, disability, and death. Obesity can lead to many serious health problems, which can be life-threatening, such as high blood pressure, high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes (insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus), increased risk of heart attack, unexplained heart attack, hyperlipidemia, infertility and cancers related colon, prostate, endometrial, breast. Yearly, approximately over 300,000 people die from obesity. As a result, obesity is said to be the second leading cause of preventable death.
Facts about obesity
- Worldwide, there are over 1 billion obese adults, at least 300 million of whom are obese.
- Obesity and overweight increase the risk of chronic diseases like type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, high blood pressure and stroke, and certain types of cancer.
- The main causes are an increase in energy intake from saturated fats and sugars, as well as a decrease in physical activity.
Symptoms of obesity
Obesity manifests itself in two ways: excessive weight gain and the presence of huge amounts of fatty tissue. Obesity can have a negative impact on your daily life.
Obesity has a number of acute symptoms, including:
- Shortness of breath
- Excessive sweating
- Sleep difficulties
- Inability to cope with sudden physical activity
- Feeling tired
- Pain in the back and joints
Some of the chronic symptoms of obesity include:
- High blood pressure
- Heart disease and stroke
- High cholesterol
- Breast cancer and menstrual problems (for women)
- Gallbladder disease
- Gastro-esophageal reflux disease
- Rheumatoid arthritis
- Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
- Skin disorders
- Reduced life expectancy
Many people may have psychological problems, including:
- Low self-esteem
- A sense of isolation
- Lower quality of life due to reduced mobility
Causes of Obesity
Obesity is not something that happens overnight – it grows slowly and is often the result of poor eating habits and lifestyle choices; to some extent your genes may also be responsible.
- Genetic: – Studies have confirmed that the tendency to obesity can be inherited. It has been observed that most obese children in childhood or obese parents grow up obese. Weight loss will be followed by fatigue and persistent exhaustion.
- Lifestyle options: – It also affects your weight. Eating more calories than you need is often the result of poor food choices. Alcohol has high calorie content, and heavy drinkers are more likely to be overweight. Bad eating habits are common in families.
- Lack of exercise: – It is another important factor related to obesity. When we do not make full use of the energy we are given to food, extra calories are stored as fat and this leads to weight gain.
- Medical reasons: – Medical reasons are also a well-known cause of obesity. In less than one in 100 cases, there is a medical reason for the obesity. Conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome (an overdose of hormones) and an underactive thyroid are common causes of obesity. Certain medications, including steroids and antidepressants, also contribute to weight gain.
How to diagnose obesity?
Obesity is determined by comparing a patient’s weight with appropriate weight charts. The exact amount of body fat can also be made with a metal known as ‘calipers’; helps to measure the thickness of your fatty tissue behind the upper arm. Women with 30% fat tissue and men with 25% fat tissue are considered obese.
Body Mass Index (BMI) is currently being used as the most accurate and reliable way to diagnose obesity. You can calculate your BMI using this calculation:
- Measure your height in meters and multiply the number itself (this is a square figure)
- Measure your weight in Kgs
- Divide your weight by the answer you got in step 1 (square height)
- The number you get to is your valid BMI
How to treat obesity?
Due to the increase in obesity and weight-related diseases, effective long-term treatment of obesity is urgently needed. Low calorie diet, exercise therapy and lifestyle counseling are effective obesity solutions that can help you deal with obesity in the best possible way. The purpose of your treatment for obesity is to lose weight in order to improve your overall health, both physical and mental; increase mobility; and improve your self-esteem. The use of drugs to treat weight loss combined with diet and exercise also provides an effective weight loss.
Xenical orlistat and Reductil sibutramine are two popular obesity pills available on the market today. Orlistat slimming pills work by blocking the action of body chemicals called digestive enzymes. About 30 percent of the fat from your diet remains undigested and is not absorbed by your body; this comes out with your faeces. Xenical capsule is taken with the main food of the day. Orlistat is not limited to: For pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers and children.
Reductil sibutramine is a type of obesity drug that involves chemicals in the brain called noradrenaline and serotonin to make you feel full or satisfied with a small diet; is designed to help you lose weight. One diet pill sibutramine is taken once a day. If orlistat or sibutramine is prescribed for you, you will also receive advice, support and advice on diet, exercise and lifestyle changes.
Weight-loss surgery is often viewed as limiting the amount of food consumed, or disrupting the digestive system. This surgery helps you to lose weight by reducing the amount of food you eat. There are three methods most commonly used in weight loss surgery:
- Gastric band surgery,
- Gastric bypass surgery,
- Intra-gastric balloon
How to prevent obesity?
A healthy diet and regular exercise are one of the best ways to prevent obesity. Diet, calorie consumption and exercise play a major role in obesity.
Fruits, vegetables and unrefined carbohydrates should be a big part of your diet. Choosing brown carbohydrates and wholegrain is healthy. Food that is steamed or grilled is healthy and prevents weight gain. Avoid overeating as it can be dangerous. Cut down on fatty foods, junk food and ready-to-eat foods, as they are high in fat, high in sugar and salt.
Calorie counting can help you lose weight. You must calculate your daily calorie needs.
Moderate exercise is crucial for maintaining a healthy weight. At least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise should be done at least five days each week. This can be completed in a single session or in multiple sessions. Exercise helps you lose weight by burning calories, increasing your metabolic rate, and suppressing your hunger.
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